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Temat: Nauka i technologia
Apollo 8 came at the end of 1968, a year that had seen much upheaval in the US. Yet, TIME magazine chose the crew of Apollo 8 as their Men of the Year for 1968, recognizing them as the people who most influenced events in the preceding year. They had been the first people ever to leave the gravitational influence of the Earth and orbit another celestial body. They had survived a mission that even the crew themselves had rated as only having a fifty-fifty chance of fully succeeding. The effect of Apollo 8 can be summed up by a telegram from a stranger, received by Borman after the mission, that simply stated, "Thank you Apollo 8. You saved 1968." One of the most famous aspects of the flight was the Earthrise picture that was taken as they came around for their fourth orbit of the Moon. This was the first time that humans had taken such a picture whilst actually behind the camera, and it has been credited with a role in inspiring the first Earth Day in 1970. It was selected as the first of Life magazine's 'hundred photos that changed the world'. Apollo 8 is regarded by some as the most historically significant of all the Apollo missions. The mission was the most widely covered by the media since the first American orbital flight, Mercury-Atlas 6 by John Glenn in 1962. There were 1200 journalists covering the mission, with the BBC coverage being broadcast in 54 countries in 15 different languages. The Soviet newspaper Pravda featured a quote from Boris Nikolaevich Petrov, Chairman of the Soviet Intercosmos program, who described the flight as an "outstanding achievement of American space sciences and technology". It is estimated that a quarter of the people alive at the time saw-either live or delayed-the Christmas Eve transmission during the ninth orbit of the Moon. The Apollo 8 broadcasts won an Emmy, the highest honor given by the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair later caused controversy by bringing a lawsuit against NASA over the reading from Genesis. O'Hair wished the courts to ban US astronauts-who were all government employees-from public prayer in space. Though the case was rejected by the US Supreme Court for lack of jurisdiction, it caused NASA to be skittish about the issue of religion throughout the rest of the Apollo program. Buzz Aldrin, on Apollo 11, self-communicated Presbyterian Communion on the surface of the moon after landing; he refrained from mentioning this publicly for several years, and only obliquely referred to it at the time. In 1969, the US Postal Service issued a postage stamp (Scott # 1371) commemorating the Apollo 8 flight around the moon. The stamp featured a detail of the famous photograph of the Earthrise over the moon taken by Anders on Christmas Eve, and the words, "In the beginning God..." Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License Source: Wikipedia